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Application of supercritical extraction plant in natural pigments

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Application of supercritical extraction plant in natural pigments

Date of release:2018-09-07 Author: Click:

One, foreword

Food coloring is an important component of food additives, which is widely used in the food industry to improve the color of food, but also widely used in medicine and cosmetics.

Before the mid-19th century, people were coloring with natural pigments. Since the first synthetic organic pigment aniline purple was invented by W.H.P. erkins in Britain in 1856, many organic pigments were synthesized successively. Because this kind of pigment is bright color, property is stable, cost is low, replaced natural pigment very quickly. With the development of science, many synthetic pigments have been found to be harmful to human body. In addition to its own chemical properties that endanger human health, and in the process of synthesis, may also be arsenic, aluminum and other harmful substances. As a result, many synthetic pigments have been banned from the world. According to statistics, there were 90 kinds of synthetic pigments used as food in the world, but only a dozen of them are still widely used in various countries. Some countries, such as Norway, have completely banned the use of any synthetic pigments. The synthetic pigments approved for use in China include carmine red, amaranth, citron, indigo and sundonghuang. In this case, people's interest in natural pigments has been greatly enhanced. Moreover, recent studies have found that most natural pigments have certain physiological functions, for example, natural oxalin-carotene has obvious effects in preventing cancer, anticancer and cardiovascular diseases. Beta-carotene has a good anticancer effect on adrenal cancer, stomach cancer and uterine cancer, and its effect is much greater than that of xanthocyanin. Lycopene has strong antioxidant properties in carotenoid, and its preventive and anti - disease effects are better than those of Chinese silkworm and beta-carotene. Anthocyanins can treat circulatory disorders and angina. Functional natural pigments not only give bright, lifelike luster to food, but also have health function to human body. They conform to the general trend of development of modern functional foods and are the new trend of development of natural pigments.

In recent ten years, China's food natural pigment industry has developed. There are dozens of companies producing natural pigments in China, with dozens of products available. However, almost all enterprises adopt traditional production techniques, with poor quality, low purity, peculiar smell and residual solvent, which seriously affect the promotion and application of natural pigments. Although a small number of manufacturers export natural pigment products, but most of the semi - finished products such as oil resin cheap supplies foreign, and then use the advanced separation process abroad, but impurities and odors, and then sold at high prices. Therefore, how to use advanced equipment and technology to improve product quality is an important issue for the future development of natural pigments in China.

Supercritical fluid extraction is a new extraction and separation technology in food industry. Compared with the traditional chemical solvent extraction method, its advantages include no chemical solvent consumption and residue, little pollution, avoiding thermal degradation of the extract at high temperature, protecting the activity of physiological active substances and maintaining the natural flavor of the extract.

Supercritical fluid extraction

Supercritical fluid extraction is an extraction process using fluid above critical temperature and pressure as solvent. The fluid near the critical point not only has extremely high solubility to the substance, but also the solubility of the substance changes with the pressure or temperature of the system. Therefore, selective extraction of the separated substance can be conveniently conducted by adjusting the pressure or temperature of the system.

The application of supercritical fluid extraction in food is a matter of nearly 20 years. In 1974, Zosel studied the extraction of caffeine from coffee by supercritical fluid. In 1978, Hag A.G established the industrial equipment and technology to remove caffeine from coffee beans, which is an important milestone in the application of supercritical fluid extraction in the food industry. At present, supercritical fluid extraction has been widely used in the extraction and separation of oil, cholesterol, spices and pigments.

Supercritical fluid extraction in food processing almost all use CO2 as extractant. CO2 is not only a strong solvent, it can extract a wide range of compounds in food processing, but also relatively stable, inexpensive, non-toxic, non-combustible and reusable. CO2 production cost low, high purity gas, no residue. CO2 critical point is lower, the critical degree of 31.1 ℃, the critical pressure is 7.38 MPa, so especially suitable for extracting volatile and heat sensitive material. Compared with traditional solvents of n-hexane and dichloromethane, it has obvious advantages.

The application of supercritical fluid extraction in natural pigments

The properties of supercritical CO2 are similar to the polarity of n-hexane, so it is especially suitable for extracting fat-soluble components. For example, Chinese paprika, capsaicin, tobacco tree orange, lutein and so on. In addition, different entrainers can be used to change the polarity of CO2, thus extending the extraction range. Pigments with strong polarity, such as tea polyphenols and ginkgo flavones, can be extracted.

1. In the past, the extraction of carotene by supercritical CO2 extraction was mainly carried out by using organic solvents such as n-hexane. Not only a lot of solvents were consumed, but all solvents were removed to avoid toxicity caused by solvent residues. Supercritical CO2 extraction can replace traditional solvent method to extract carotene effectively. Yu 'en made equal use of supercritical CO2 to extract carotene from algae. Acetone as entrainer can improve the extraction rate.

2. Supercritical fluid extraction of capsaicin from paprika paprika industrial use of ethanol or hexane and other extraction from paprika paprika oil resin, and then after the separation of capsaicin pepper oil resins, and then after the separation of capsaicin pepper no spicy deep red oil liquid - capsaicin. Due to the oily nature of capsaicin, the removal of residues (such as n-hexane, etc.) from products usually extracted by solvent is difficult to reach the standards of FAO and WHO, which greatly affects its use and export earnings. Zhao used supercritical CO2 to extract capsaicin from crushed dry chili peppers. Extraction conditions for particle size < 1.2 mm, pressure is 15 mpa, extraction temperature 50 ℃, 6 m3 / hr flow. Wu lizeng et al. purified capsaicin (containing a solvent of more than 10000mg/kg) from capsicum annuum. The extraction conditions for 18 mpa, 25 ℃, the flow rate of 2.0 L/min. Residual solvent can be up to 20mg/kg.

3. A.J.D. egnan et al. studied the effect of supercritical CO2 on extraction of yanzhi orange. The solubility of pure cochineal orange in CO2 was 0.003mg/g, while that of pigment in cochineal seed was 0.026mg/g. The solubility of pigment in CO2 increased with temperature, but did not increase with pressure at the same temperature. The extraction rate of carmine orange could be improved by using vegetable oil as entrainer.

Roy r.c. hao et al. used supercritical CO2 to extract natural pigments from the seeds of cochineal trees. Carmine tree oranges are easier to extract than carmine. Rouge orange orange slope rouge trees are more likely to extraction, extraction temperature 50 ℃, the total pressure of 310 bar may obtain higher pigment production.

Four, conclusion

Although supercritical fluid extraction of natural pigments has many advantages, it has not been widely applied in this field in China. The main reason is that the supercritical equipment has large one-time investment and the extraction process of natural pigments is still immature. However, due to the advantages of supercritical fluid extraction, many manufacturers have or are preparing to invest in supercritical equipment. The research of supercritical fluid extraction of natural pigments is a key point in the future development. In particular, with people's recognition and attention to functional natural pigments, it is believed that supercritical fluid extraction will replace traditional solvent extraction of natural pigments to produce high purity and high quality pigment products to meet the needs of use and export.

Supercritical extraction equipment

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Key word:Supercriticalextractionequipment,Supercriticalextractionequipmenttechnology,Principleofsupercriticalextractionequipment

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