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The new technique of supercritical fluid extraction is applied widely

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The new technique of supercritical fluid extraction is applied widely

Date of release:2018-09-07 Author: Click:

Supercritical fluid extraction (sfe) is a new practical technique with rapid development and wide application. It has the characteristics of low temperature extraction, no solvent residue and selective separation. After years of efforts in China, remarkable achievements have been made: the use of the supercritical CO2 extraction device to extract and separate the effective components such as sea buckthorn oil, coix seed oil, safflower oil, cinnamon oil, hop-ol, artemisinin, garlic oil, propolis and tanshinone, and good results have been achieved.

1. Main factors influencing the supercritical extraction of traditional Chinese medicine

Fluid density: the strength of a solvent is related to the density of a supercritical fluid. When the temperature is constant, the density increases, so does the strength of the solvent and the solubility of the deep substance.

Entrainer: supercritical CO2 is a less polar solvent, limiting its application to more polar solutes. Therefore, adding a small amount of entrainer into supercritical CO2 can change the polarity of the solvent and greatly improve the extraction rate. The usual entrainer is ethanol.

Particle size: the size of material particle size directly affects extraction efficiency. In general, the smaller the particle size, the larger the contact area between the material and supercritical fluid, the stronger the infiltration capacity, and the higher the extraction efficiency. But do not be too thin, or it will cause a "drain" and enter the pipe.

Fluid volume: the molecular structure of the extracted product determines the volume of supercritical fluid required. Different extraction products and extraction rates require different volumes of supercritical fluid.

Influence of extraction parameters: the extraction yield can be changed by changing the pressure, temperature and extraction time during supercritical extraction.

2. Characteristics of supercritical fluid extraction device applied to traditional Chinese medicine

2.1 strong extraction capability and high extraction rate. With the development of supercritical fluid extraction technology, non-polar and medium-polar components can be extracted effectively.

2.2 low operating temperature can ensure that the effective components of traditional Chinese medicine are not damaged or sub-biochemical, especially suitable for extraction of heat-sensitive and oxidation-prone components.

2.3 short extraction time and easy control of process parameters can guarantee product quality and facilitate quantitative analysis.

2.4 different components can be extracted from traditional Chinese medicine under different conditions with strong selectivity. The loss of active components of CO2 in circulation is very small.

3. The supercritical extraction device produced at present has been applied to the following varieties

3.1 application in extraction of tea polyphenols. It mainly produces tea polyphenols and caffeine with crushed tea leaves or secondary tea. Tea polyphenols is an excellent antioxidant, used in food and cosmetics and other aspects. Tea polyphenols have anti-caries and bactericidal effects. At the same time, tea polyphenols can reduce cholesterol, blood pressure, blood lipids and anti-aging. The tea polyphenols extracted by chemical method were not purified by CO2 supercritical extraction. Caffeine is also a common drug, turning what used to be considered useless into a high-value product.

3.2 the supercritical extraction device is used to extract red pigment from chili peppers, and the by-product is mainly capsaicin. Pepper oil is made by adding about 90% mature vegetable oil into capsaicin. Exports have been hampered by the low annual price and spicy taste of the chemical red pigment in chili peppers. Therefore, supercritical CO2 extraction can solve the above problems well.

Propolis was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction device. The propolis extracted by supercritical extraction technology is transparent in color, strong in taste, high in purity and high in extraction rate. It has been applied in several propolis production bases in China.

3.4 tanshinone extraction from salvia miltiorrhiza with supercritical extraction device. The extraction of tanshinone from salvia miltiorrhiza is characterized by high extraction efficiency, high purity and simple process.

4. Structural features and application experience of supercritical CO2 extraction device

4.1 structure characteristics of the device

4.1.1 a quick-opening extraction kettle structure is designed with hard seal structure. It is very convenient to open and close, saving time and effort, and solving the problem that the rubber o-ring structure requires frequent replacement of o-ring. The technology has been patented by the state.

4.1.2 extraction pressure up to 45Mpa; The extraction, separation and distillation temperature to room temperature to 80 ℃, parameters can be adjusted according to user's convenience, all digital display.

4.1.3 different combination methods of extraction kettle (1~24 l, 24~1000 l) and separation kettle are designed.

4.1.4 online sampling can be realized to analyze the logistics composition of the exit of each extraction reactor and separation reactor.

4.1.5 digital display and control instruments are adopted for all temperatures, with high degree of automation and convenient operation and control; The pressure safety device is equipped with safety valve and explosion-proof sheet for double protection and high safety. It can be equipped with computer monitoring system as required.

4.. The whole set of equipment is made of stainless steel, which is not only beautiful, but also can meet the requirements of the food and medicine industry.

4.2 device application experience

4.2.1 the high-pressure plunger pump can only be pressurized when the liquid storage cylinder pressure reaches about 4Mpa. Therefore, when the air pressure of CO2 cylinder drops to 3Mpa, it is difficult to replenish CO2 in the liquid storage cylinder during the working process. Therefore, several cylinders should be prepared in the process of work. At the beginning of starting up, the cylinder with low pressure should be used to pressurize and discharge air into the liquid storage cylinder. CO2 should be replenished with the cylinder with high pressure during work. Of course, large capacity devices can build CO2 gas stations.

4.2.2 at the end of extraction, open the valve behind the extraction kettle and separation kettle first, and allow as much CO2 fluid as possible to flow back to the liquid storage cylinder. When the pressure of extractor, separator and liquid storage cylinder is balanced, the valve before and after the liquid storage cylinder is closed, and the material is pressed out of the separating kettle by the residual air pressure of the system.

4.2.3 where conditions are available, the cooling system of the liquid storage cylinder and the high-pressure pump can be placed in isolation from the main engine to reduce work noise, reduce work vibration and enhance heat dissipation performance.

4.2.4 distilled water should be added to the heating circulation tank to prevent fouling of the pump after a long time.

4.2.5 a supercritical CO2 extraction laboratory has been established. Users can carry out process tests in the factory, explore the process parameters and master the equipment performance.

5. Prospect analysis of application of supercritical extraction device in traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of application in China as a natural medicine, and its yield ranks first in the world. However, due to the limited technical level of industrial modernization and the backward level of preparation technology and dosage form, the promotion and application of Chinese traditional medicine in the world is restricted. Must adopt the advanced production technology, realizes the Chinese traditional medicine modernization. The first step is to apply advanced extraction and separation technology and advanced technologies such as supercritical fluid extraction to research, develop and industrialize traditional Chinese medicine. SFE technology is applied to extract the active ingredients of natural drugs, no residual solvent, no recovery solvent caused environmental pollution and other defects, and the extraction time is short, which can shorten the production cycle. Undoubtedly, it is a high and new technology which can not only improve the yield and product purity, but also reduce the cost. SFE has been used in conjunction with high and new analytical instruments such as chromatography, mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography. SFE technology is used to extract the effective components of single and compound drugs, which has a good prospect for integrating Chinese traditional medicine with international standards and realizing the modernization of Chinese traditional medicine.

Supercritical extraction equipment

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Key word:Supercriticalextractionequipment,Supercriticalextractionequipmenttechnology,Principleofsupercriticalextractionequipment

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